This is due to a lack of thyroid hormone (thyroxine) in the body.

Symptoms include

  • Fatigue
  • Weight Gain
  • Poor Concentration
  • Dry Skin
  • Brittle Nails
  • Hair Loss
  • Intolerance of Cold

Treatment is the replacement of the deficient thyroxin. Synthetic thyroid hormone such as levo-thyroxine can alleviate symptoms as it works like the patient’s own. In cases where the cause is lack of iodine intake, replacing the iodine the diet will help. This is however not a common cause in SIngapore.



This is due to overactivity of the thyroid gland. The thyroxine level in the body is raised. This result in numerous metabolic changes.

Symptoms include

  • Fast Heart Rate (Palpitations)
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Weight Loss
  • Trembling hands
  • Bulging EyesThy

Treatment is by anti -thyroid medication, radio-iodine treatment or by surgery. The individual may need thyroxine replacement after radio-iodine treatment or surgery.