Snoring is the cardinal signs of sleep disordered breathing . This can be further categorised as simple snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
OSA affects up to 4% of adults. OSA is caused by repetitive partial or complete collapse of the upper airway doing sleep, resulting in disruption of the normal sleep pattern and is usually associated with oxygen desaturations of the blood.
Assessment of OSA is by means of an overnight steep study or a formal sleep laboratory polysomnography.
The symptoms of OSA can be divided into daytime and nighttime symptoms.
symptoms include excessive daytime somnolence, morning headaches, near- cognitive impairment (loss of concentration and memory impairment) mood changes, depression and irritability. Nocturnal symptoms include snoring, apneas, bruxism, nocturia, drooling and loss of libido.
OSA is a gradually progressive disease. With worsening, it is associated with the development of significant medical co morbidities, which may go unrecognised by the patient. It is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and a decrease in psychomotor efficiency.